The Bioethics Observatory Institute of Life Sciences at the Catholic University of Valencia in an Aug. 15, 2017 article, "Review of Countries Where Euthanasia Has Been Legalised. Increasing Involuntary Euthanasia, without Consent by Patients," available at, stated:

“Euthanasia a slippery slope that ends in involuntary euthanasia

Euthanasia was legalised in Belgium in 2002, where is defined as ‘the intentional termination of a patient’s life by a physician at the patient’s request’, so that only voluntary euthanasia may be legally carried out in Belgium. However, this legal requirement of voluntarism is not always fulfilled.

Thus, a study conducted in Flanders in 1996 found that 3.3% of cases of euthanasia had occurred without the prior request of the patient. In other words, they were involuntary euthanasias. Another study (also in Flanders) found that there had been 1796 cases of involuntary euthanasias (3.2%). A more recent study from 2007 found that the percentage of involuntary euthanasia was 1.8%, while another in 2013 found 1.7%.

However — and we believe this is important — the percentage of involuntary euthanasia in patients who were 80-years-old or over rose to 52.7%, while in those with diseases other than cancer, this figure reached 67.5%. The decision was not discussed with the patient in 77.9% of cases.”

Aug. 15, 2017