Last updated on: 12/15/2022 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

1.Brandon Vogel, “What Is Medical Aid In Dying… And What It Isn’t,”, Oct. 26, 2020
2.University of Missouri Center for Health Ethics, “Euthanasia,” (accessed July 15, 2022)
3.Death with Dignity, “Frequently Asked Questions,” (accessed July 15, 2022)
4.Nolo, “Death With Dignity Laws in Your State,” (accessed July 15, 2022)
5.American Medical Association, “Physician-Assisted Suicide,” (accessed July 15, 2022)
6.American College of Physicians, “American College of Physicians Reaffirms Opposition to Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide,”, Sep. 19, 2017
7.World Medical Association, “WMA Declaration on Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide,”, Oct. 2019
8.American Public Health Association, “Patients’ Rights to Self-Determination at the End of Life,”, Oct. 28, 2008
9.American College of Legal Medicine, “ACLM Policy on Aid in Dying,”, Oct. 6, 2008
10.American Medical Women’s Association, “American Medical Women’s Association Position Paper on Medical Aid in Dying,”, Oct. 8, 2018
11.British Medical Association, “BMA Position on Physician-Assisted Dying,” (accessed July 15, 2022)
12.Canadian Medical Association, “Medical Assistance in Dying,”, 2017
13.Megan Brenan, “Americans' Strong Support for Euthanasia Persists,”, May 31, 2018
14.Merriam-Webster, “Euthanasia,” (accessed July 21, 2022)
15.Emily A. Meier, et al., “Defining a Good Death (Successful Dying): Literature Review and a Call for Research and Public Dialogue,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,, Apr. 2016
16.American Association of Suicidology, “Statement of the American Association of Suicidology: ‘Suicide’ Is Not the Same as ‘Physician Aid in Dying,’”, May 6, 2018
17.Anita Hannig, "‘Assisted Suicide’ Deserves a Different Name. Here’s Why.,", July 6, 2022
18.Mara Buchbinder, “Death as Something We Make,”, Apr. 8, 2021
19.James Stacey Taylor, “Autonomy,”, June 20, 2017
20.Esmé E Deprez, “A Fight to Die,”, Dec. 17, 2021
21.Lamar W. Hawkins, “Is Medical Aid in Dying a Human Right? Another View,”, Dec. 19, 2019
22.Allison Wallis, “Death Doulas and End-of-Life Rights: The Debate on Assisted Dying,”, Aug. 8, 2021, "States with Legal Medical-Aid-in-Dying (MAID),", July 7, 2022
24.Loup Besmond de Senneville, “Assisted Suicide: The Vatican’s Strategic Turn On Bioethics,”, Feb. 8, 2022
25.George F. Will, “Opinion: Medical Aid in Dying Is for Preventing a Hideous Death, Not for Truncating an Unhappy Life,”, Jan. 21, 2022
26.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Suicide,”, July 16, 2022
27.Wesley J. Smith, “Legalizing ‘Medical Aid in Dying’ Normalizes Suicide,”, Feb 25, 2022
28.Steven Wade, “Assisted Suicide Bill Sets a Dangerous Precedent,”, Feb. 14, 2022
29.World Health Organization, “Suicide,”, June 1, 2021
30.National Institute of Mental Health, “Suicide,” (accessed July 20, 2022)
31.Centers for Disease Control, “Suicide Mortality in the United States, 2000–2020,”, Mar. 2022
32.Mark S. Komrad, “Medical Aid in Dying: A Slippery Slope,”, Aug. 27, 2021
33.Center for Disability Rights, “Physician Assisted Suicide Deadly for Disabled,”, Apr. 27, 2022
34.National Council on Disability, “The Danger of Assisted Suicide Laws,”, Oct. 9, 2019
35.John Stonestreet and Shane Morris, “Doctor Assisted Suicide is No Slippery Slope, It’s a Moral Cliff,”, Feb. 9, 2022
36.Deepa Shivaram, “Physician-Assisted Death in Oregon Is No Longer Limited to Just State Residents,”, Mar. 30, 2022
37.Dying with Dignity Canada, “Get the Facts: Canada’s Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID) Law,” (accessed July 20, 2022)
38.Maria Cramer and Claire Moses, “Netherlands to Allow Doctors to Help End Lives of Terminally Ill Children,”, Oct. 16, 2020, “Health Minister Proposes Euthanasia Protocol for Children under 12,”, June 28, 2022
40.Government of the Netherlands, “Euthanasia, Assisted Suicide and Non-Resuscitation on Request,” (accessed July 20, 2022)
41.Christopher de Bellaigue, “Death on Demand: Has Euthanasia Gone Too Far?,”, Jan. 18, 2019
42.Margaret Dore, “What Do We Advise Our Clients?,”, May 2009